Uncovering the NSO Group: The Looming Threat of Stockpiled Zero-Days and Apple's Security Challenge



The recent revelations about NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware have raised concerns about the extent of the company’s capabilities and the vulnerability of popular devices like iPhones. This article examines the possibility that NSO has a stockpile of zero-day vulnerabilities ready to deploy and questions whether Apple is truly aware of the magnitude of this security problem. It also raises the issue of whether Apple’s bug bounty program is sufficient to attract hackers away from the black market.

The Depth of NSO’s Zero-Day Arsenal:

Speculation surrounds the number of undisclosed vulnerabilities in NSO’s possession, with some suggesting that they could have a significant stockpile of zero-days. While the exact number is unknown, it is plausible that they have several at their disposal, ready to deploy once existing vulnerabilities are patched. This raises serious concerns about the potential extent of NSO’s surveillance abilities and the threat this poses to individuals, organizations, and even governments.

Is Apple Aware of the Problem?:

The question arises as to whether Apple fully comprehends the severity of the situation. Given NSO Group’s alleged arsenal, some argue that Apple should increase its bounties to attract hackers away from NSO and onto their side. However, it remains uncertain whether this strategy would be effective, considering the high price NSO pays for zero-day vulnerabilities. Moreover, bug bounty programs inherently involve risk, with no guarantee of a payout.

Considering Security Measures and Options:

Individuals who suspect state-sponsored spying should take precautions to protect themselves. Suggestions include using multiple phones, utilizing authenticated protocols rather than SMS/MMS, and disabling cell service when not in active use. These measures, while not foolproof, can decrease the attack surface and increase personal security.

The Role of Authorities and Responsibility:

The issue of responsibility arises within the software industry. While it is the manufacturer’s responsibility to secure their devices, governments also play a crucial role in information security. Critics argue that governmental agencies like the NSA should collaborate with tech companies to improve security rather than hoarding undisclosed vulnerabilities for their own purposes.

The Need for Improved Security:

The article also highlights the importance of improving security measures in the software world, given the risks of state-sponsored attacks. It suggests that companies like Apple should work towards making their devices even more secure by taking proactive steps such as randomizing data structure ordering, changing flags and logic in the memory allocator, and selecting different compiler optimizations with every release. These measures can make it more difficult for attackers to exploit vulnerabilities consistently.


The NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware revelations have exposed the potential threats posed by a stockpile of undisclosed zero-day vulnerabilities. While Apple’s devices are generally considered secure, the magnitude of this security problem demands attention. It is vital that tech companies prioritize security, work with governments to improve regulations, and constantly enhance their devices’ security features to protect users from both state-sponsored and other types of attacks. The responsibility should be shared among manufacturers, governments, and individuals to ensure a safer digital landscape for all.

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