The Silent Spectre: Why Chipmakers Rely on External Researchers to Uncover Vulnerabilities



In the era of advanced technological innovations, it is alarming to discover that chip manufacturers, despite their expertise and resources, have been largely reactive in dealing with Spectre attacks. This article aims to highlight the unusual phenomenon of chipmakers relying on external researchers to discover and patch vulnerabilities in their products. It questions why the experts, who possess intimate knowledge of their chips, haven’t prioritized the proactive detection of these attacks.

The Expertise Gap

Chipmakers are well-equipped to detect and resolve vulnerabilities due to their comprehensive understanding of speculative execution and the intricate workings of their chips. With access to an array of validation suites, simulators, and internal specifications, one would expect chipmakers to spearhead the discovery process. However, it appears that independent researchers, armed with limited resources and reverse-engineering techniques, have been the primary drivers in finding and addressing these security flaws.

Missed Opportunities

Considering the detection of Spectre attacks, it is perplexing that chipmakers have not undertaken a comprehensive examination of their chips after becoming aware of the general mechanism. While it is possible that the firms secretly patched these vulnerabilities, research indicates no invisible kernel fixes or mystery microcode updates closely resembling the Spectre resolutions. Furthermore, independent researchers have predominantly discovered new attacks rather than unearthing unaddressed ones, suggesting a market failure in vulnerability detection despite major efforts to fix existing flaws.

The Cross-Generational Challenge

One striking aspect is the persistence of Spectre-like vulnerabilities across successive generations of chips. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of chip vendors’ in-depth analysis of new chip versions. If significant efforts were made during chip development to improve security, then potential threats affecting older chips should also have been mitigated. However, this is not observed, indicating a worrisome lack of robust proactive measures from chipmakers.

Speculation vs. Reality

While some argue that chipmakers may downplay or delay fixes in order to avoid negative public perceptions and performance issues, evidence suggests that microcode updates tied to published attacks have been visible, diminishing the likelihood of secretive patching. Moreover, the absence of evidence supporting the rediscovery of resolved attacks suggests that chipmakers have not dedicated substantial resources to preemptively addressing these issues.

Understanding the Incentives

Critics claim that chip vendors may not invest adequate time in seeking out vulnerabilities, presuming that the risks associated with undiscovered bugs outweigh the potential threat. It is suggested that they prefer to respond to publically reported vulnerabilities, which can be promptly fixed and minimize performance impacts. The hypothesis emphasizes that security researchers, driven by their reputation and incentives, tend to amplify the significance of vulnerabilities that may have limited real-world impact on potential attackers.

The Y2K Paradox

An apt comparison can be drawn between speculation attacks and the Y2K bug. The Y2K issues were primarily resolved due to widespread prevention campaigns and significant investments. In hindsight, the extent of this problem was possibly exaggerated, leading some to dismiss the importance of Spectre attacks. However, it is crucial to remember that the discoveries of Spectre vulnerabilities have not been made by billions of ordinary users but by a small group of dedicated researchers.


The ongoing trend of external researchers identifying and addressing Spectre attacks raises questions about the approach and priorities of chipmakers. Despite the wealth of expertise and resources at their disposal, chip manufacturers have seemingly neglected the proactive detection and resolution of these vulnerabilities. While possible explanations range from market dynamics to cost-benefit analysis, the lack of comprehensive efforts from chipmakers remains a surprising and concerning phenomenon in the realm of consumer technology security.

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